Marbles By Patricia Samford. Marbles are one of the most common toys found on North American historic period archaeological sites.
This essay will attempt to provide dating and identification tools Dating glass marbles ceramic, stone and glass marbles typically found on these sites. This essay and tool is in no way intended to be a comprehensive guide to marbles, since there are many excellent published and online sources, particularly for the types of glass marbles highly sought by collectors.
Table 1 provides a summary of the date ranges and characteristics of "Dating glass marbles" marble types discussed in this essay. Because there is a great deal of source material for dating marbles, site summaries are not provided for this Small Finds category. Date ranges and characteristics of marble types.
Germany was the leading manufacturer of marbles throughout the 19th century and into the s Carskadden and Gartley Commercial marble production began in the United States in the late 19th century, but it was not until the invention of the automatic marble making machine in that the industry there really accelerated Randall ; Carskadden and Gartley Other Earthenware Marbles - Low-fired, unglazed marbles made of kaolin clay were produced in Germany and sold in the United States, beginning in the s Carskadden and Gartley Agateware marbles "Dating glass marbles" made from incompletely mixed clays of different colors brown and white, white with blue or "Dating glass marbles" clays are common.
Like many earthenware marbles, they are difficult to date precisely, having been made in Europe from the colonial period up until World War I Carskadden and Gartley Marbles were also produced with the same buff-colored clays used to manufacture yellow ware, both in glazed and unglazed varieties.
At present, yellow ware marbles appear to date to the third quarter of the 19th century Carskadden and Gartley Whiteware marbles, characterized by sloppy glazing and often out-of-round, were made from the s into the first decade of the 20th century Carskadden and Gartley Salt Glazed Stoneware — Both brown and gray salt glazed stoneware marbles are likely to be found on North American archaeological sites.
Both types have grey stoneware paste, with a brown iron or manganese slip covering the brown salt glazed variety. Gartley and Carskadden Benningtons — These white bodied stoneware marbles are finished with colorful glaze, either in a single color—generally blue, caramel or dark brown—or a mottling of brown and blue against the white marble paste. Benningtons were produced during last three Dating glass marbles of 19th century and first decade of 20th century Gartley and Carskadden They are typically characterized by circular bare spots in the glaze, caused by the marbles resting against one another in the kiln.
Porcelain marbles were also manufactured and sold without any painted decoration. Although undecorated Chinas may have been imported into the United States from Germany since early in the 19th century, it is uncommon for undecorated porcelain marbles to appear in archaeological contexts before around Gartley and Carskadden Click on buttons below to view images.
Thank you for visiting our website. If you have any questions, comments, or new information to share, please contact us at patricia. Introduction Projectile Points Paleo-Indian: Jack's Reef Corner Notched.
North Midlands Staffordshire - type. English Dry - Bodied. White Salt - Glazed.
Painted Wares Enameled Creamware. Polychrome-Minimal Use of Cobalt Blue. Cobalt Blue - Large Brushstrokes. Polychrome-Increased Use of Cobalt Blue. Printed Wares Central Motifs.
Yellow Printed Brown Ware. Industrial Ware Hotel China. Commonly-found Stoneware Vessel Forms. Small Finds Boy Playing Marbles. David Gilmout Blythe, ca. Ceramic marbles can be divided into three primary categories based on manufacturing material: Unglazed Earthenware — Common brown-bodied earthenware marbles are made from low-fired, unglazed earthenware.
Depending on impurities in the clay, these marbles can range in color from red to brown, tan or gray. A drop of water placed on a brown-bodied Dating glass marbles marble will be rapidly absorbed and this action constitutes a simple method for distinguishing it from an unglazed stoneware marble.
Commercial manufacture of unglazed earthenware marbles began in North America and Germany in the midth century, although the presence of common brown-bodied earthenware marbles on archaeological sites dating several centuries earlier indicates that they were produced prior to that time Basinet n.
Common brown earthenware marbles, which cannot be precisely dated, continued production into the s Gartley and Carskadden It was typical for marbles made prior to the introduction of the marble shaping machine in to not be perfectly spherical and sometimes show evidence of fingerprints Gartley and Carskadden A process for painting or dying earthenware marbles was patented in by manufacturer in Ohio Gartley and Carskadden Bisque Unglazed Stoneware Dating glass marbles Unglazed stoneware marbles are fired at a high enough temperature that they are impermeable to liquids Gartley and Carskadden They are often gray in color and sometimes contain small orange inclusions.